Grand Designs

Posted on 31st December 2013

Over the last year I've made several releases for Labyrinth and its various plugins. Some have been minor improvements, while others have been major improvements as I've reviewed the code for various projects. I originally wrote Labyrinth after being made redundant back in December 2002, and after realising all mistakes I made with the design of its predecessor, Mephisto. In the last 11 years has helped me secure jobs, enabled me to implement numerous OpenSource projects (CPAN Testers and YAPC Conference Surveys to name just two) and provided the foundation to create several websites for friends and family. It has been a great project to work on, as I've learnt alot about Perl, AJAX/JSON, Payment APIs, Security, Selenium and many other aspects of web development.

I did a talk about Labyrinth in Frankfurt for YAPC::Europe 2011, and one question I was asked, was about comparing Labyrinth to Catalyst. When I created Labyrinth, Catalyst and its predecessor Maypole, were 2 years (and 1 year) away from release. Back then I no idea about an MVC, but I was pleased that in later years when I was introduced to the design concept, that it had seemed an obvious and natural way to design a web framework. Aside from this and both being written in Perl, Labyrinth and Catalyst are very different beasts. If you're looking for a web framework to design a mojor system for your company, then Catalyst is perhaps the better choice. Catalyst also has a much bigger community, whereas Labyrinth is essentially just me. I'd love for Labyrinth to get more usage and exposure, but for the time being, I'm quite comfortable with it being the quiet machine behind CPAN Testers, YAPC Surveys, and all the other commercial and non-commercial sites I've worked on over the years.

This year I finally released the code to enable Labyrinth to run under PSGI and Plack. It was much easier than I thought, and enabled me to better understand the concepts behind the PSGI protocol. There are several other concepts in web development that are emerging, and I'm hoping to allow Labyrinth to teach me some of them. However, I suspect most of my major work with Labyrinth in 2014 is going to be centred on some of the projects I'm currently involved with.

The first is the CPAN Testers Admin site. This has been a long time coming, and is very close to release. There are some backend fixes that are still needed to join the different sites together, but the site itself is mostly done. It still needs testing, but it'll be another Labyrinth site to join the other 4 in the CPAN Testers family. The site has taken a long time to develop, not least because of various other changes to CPAN Testers that have happened over the few years, and the focus on getting the reports online sooner rather than later.

The next major Labyrinth project I plan to work on during 2014, is the YAPC Conference Surveys. Firstly to release the current code base and language packs, to enable others to develop their own survey sites, as that has been long over due. Secondly, I want to integrate the YAPC surveys into the Act software tool, so that promoting surveys for YAPCs and Perl Workshops will be much easier, and we won't have to rely on people remembering their keycode login. Many people have told me after various events that they never received the email to login to the surveys. Some have later been found in spam folders, but some have changed their email address and the one stored in Act is no longer valid. Allowing Act to request survey links will enable attendees to simply log into the conference site and click a link. Further to this, if the conference has surveys enabled, then I'd like the Act site to be able to provide links next to each talk, so that talk evaluations can be donme much more easily.

Lastly, I finally want to get all the raw data online as possible. I still have the archives of all the surveys that have been undertaken, and some time ago I wrote a script to create a data file, combining both the survey questions and the responses, appropriately anonymised, with related questions linked, so that others can evaluate the results and provide even more statistical analysis than I currently provide.

In the meantime the next notable release from Labyrinth will be a redesign of the permissions system. From the very beginning Labyrinth had a permissions system, which for many of the websites was adequate. However, the original Mephisto project encompassed a permissions system for the tools it used, which for Labyrinth were redesigned as plugins. Currently a user has a level of permission; Reader, Editor, Publisher, Admin and Master. Each level grants more access than the previous one as you might expect. Users can also be assigned to groups, which also have permissions. It is quite simplistic, but as most of the sites I've developed only have a few users, granting these permissions across the whole site has been perfectly acceptable.

However, with a project I'm currently working on this isn't enough. Each plugin, and its level of functionality (View, Edit, Delete), need different permissions for different users and/or groups. The permissions system employed by Mephisto came close, but they aren't suitable for the current project. A brainwave over Christmas saw a better way to do this, and not just to implement for the current project, but to improve and simplify the current permission system, and enable to plugins to set their permissions in data or configuration rather than code, which is a key part of the design of Labyrinth.

This ability to control via data is a key element of how Labyrinth was designed, and it isn't just about your data model. In Catalyst and other web frameworks, the dispatch table is hardcoded. At the time we designed Mephisto, CGI::Application was the most prominent web framework, and this hardcoding was something that just seemed wrong. If you need to change the route through your request at short notice, you shouldn't have to recode your application and make another release. With Labyrinth switching templates, actions and code paths is done via configuration files. Changing can be dne in seconds. Admittedly it isn't something I've needed to do very often, but it has been necessary from time to time, such as disabling functionality due to broken 3rd party APIs, or switching templates for different promotions.

The permission system needs to be exactly the same. A set of permissions for one site may be entirely different for another. Taking this further, the brainwave encompassed the idea of profiles. Similar to groups, a profile can establish a set of generic permissions. Specific permissions can then be adjusted as required, and reset via a profile on a per user or per group basis. This then allows the site permissions to be tailored for a specific user. This then allows UserA and UserB to have generic Reader access, but for UserA to have Editor access to TaskA and UserB to be granted Editor access to TaskB. Previously the permission system would have meant both users be granted Editor access for the whole site. Now, or at least when the system is finished, a user's permissions can be set so they can be restricted to only the tasks they need access to.

Over Christmas there have been a few other fixes and enhancements to various Labyrinth sites, so expect to see those to also find their way back into the core code and plugins. I expect several Labyrinth related releases this year, and hopefully a few more talks at YAPCs, Workshops and technical events in the coming year about them all. Labyrinth has been a fun project to work on, and long may it continue.

File Under: labyrinth / opensource / website

Lullaby of London

Posted on 21st December 2013

The 2013 London Perl Workshop Conference Survey results are now online.

Although percentage wise the submissions are up, the actual number of respondents are just slightly lower than previous years. Though it has to be said I'm still pleased to get roughly a third of attendees submitting survey responses. It might not give a completely accurate picture of the event, but hopefully we still get a decent flavour of it.

Two questions, which I plan to pay closer attention to in future surveys are; 'How do you rate your Perl knowledge?' and 'How long have you been programming in Perl?' Originally the age question usually gave some indication of how long someone had been using Perl, but from experience, I now know that doesn't work. As such, these two questions hopefully give us a better idea of the level of knowledge and experience of attendees. Perhaps unsurprisingly had a lot of attendees who have been around the Perl community for many years, particularly as it was the first non-US Perl Monger group. However, we do still see a notable number of people who are relatively new to Perl. It will be interesting to see whether these numbers change over the years, as although the community doesn't appear to be growing radically, it is still attracting first-time attendees.

Looking at the list of suggested topics, I was intrigued to see "Testing" in there. Apart from my own talk and Daniel Perrett's, there wasn't anything specifically about testing. I don't know if its because the older hands are more weary of giving test talks, or whether everyone thinks everything has been said, but I do think it's a topic that worth repeating. We regularly have new attendees who have never seen these talks before, so hopefully we'll see some more submitted at future workshops and YAPCs. There was also a lot of interest in practical uses of web frameworks. Although Andrew Solomon held a Dancer tutorial, seeing how to solve specific problems with web applications would be valuable to many. Having said that, the diverse range of subjects that was on offer at the workshop, was equally as interesting. I just hope Mark and Ian are so inundated with talks next year, we have an even greater choice from the schedule.

Thank you to Mark and Ian from organising another great Perl event, and thanks to all the speakers for making it worth attending. Also to all the attendees, especially those who took the time to respond to the survey, and for all the talk evaluations. I know the speakers appreciate the evaluations, as I've had a few thank yous already :)

Enjoy the results.

File Under: community / london / opensource / survey / workshop

Even Flow

Posted on 8th December 2013

The following is part of an occasional series of highlighting CPAN modules/distributions and why I use them. This article looks at Data::FlexSerializer.

Many years ago the most popular module for persistent data storage in Perl was Storable. While still used, it's limitations have often cause problems. It's most significant problem was that each version was incompatible with another. Upgrading had to be done carefully. The data store was often unportable, and made making backups problematic. In more recent years JSON has grown to be more acceptable as a data storage format. It benefits from being a compact data structure format, and human readable, and was specifically a reaction to  XML, which requires lots of boilerplate and data tags to form simple data elements. It's one reason why most modern websites use JSON for AJAX calls rather than XML. had a desire to move away from Storable and initially looked to moving to JSON. However, since then they have designed their own data format, Sereal. But more of that later. Firstly they needed some formatting code to read their old Storable data, and translate into JSON. The next stage was to compress the JSON. Although JSON is already a compact data format, it is still plain text. Compressing a single data structure can reduce the storage by as much as half the original data size, which when you're dealing with millions of data items can be considerable. In's case they needed to do this with zero downtime, running the conversion on live data as it was being used. The resulting code was to later become the basis for Data::FlexSerializer.

However, for they found JSON to be unsuitable for their needs, as they were unable to store Perl data structures they way they wanted to. As such they created a new storage format, which they called Searal. You can read more about the thoughts behind the creation of Sereal on the blog. That blog post also looks at the performance and sizes of the different formats, and if you're looking for a suitable serialisation format, Sereal is very definitely worth investigating.

Moving back to my needs, I had become interested in the work had done, as within the world of CPAN Testers, we store the reports in JSON format. With over 32 million reports at the time (now over 37 million), the database table had grown to over 500GB. The old server was fast running out of disk space, and before exploring options for increasing storage capacity, I wanted to try and see whether there was an option to reduce the size of the JSON data structures. Data::FlexSerializer was an obvious choice. It could read uncompressed JSON and return compressed JSON in milliseconds.

So how easy was it to convert all 32 million reports? Below is essentially the code that did the work:

  my $serializer = Data::FlexSerializer->new( detect_compression => 1 );

    for my $next ( $options{from} .. $options{to} ) {
        my @rows = $dbx->GetQuery('hash','GetReport',$next);
        return  unless(@rows);

        my ($data,$json);
        eval {
            $json = $serializer->deserialize($rows[0]->{report});
            $data = $serializer->serialize($json);

        next  if($@ || !$data);


Simple, straighforward and got the job done very efficiently. The only downside was the database calls. As the old server was maxed out on I/O, I could only run the script to convert during quiet periods as the CPAN Testers server would become unresponsive. This wasn't a fault of Data::FlexSerializer, but very much a problem with our old server.

Before the conversion script completed, the next step was to add functionality to permanently store reports in a compressed format. This only required 3 extra lines being added to CPAN::Testers::Data::Generator.

  use Data::FlexSerializer;

    $self->{serializer} = Data::FlexSerializer->new( detect_compression => 1 );

    my $data = $self->{serializer}->serialize($json);

The difference has been well worth the move. The compressed version of the table has reclaimed around 250GB. Because MySQL doesn't automatical free the data back to the system, you need to run the optimize command on a table. Unfortunately, for CPAN Testers this wouldn't be practical as it would mean locking the database for far too long. Also with the rapid growth of CPAN Testers (we now receive over 1 million reports a month) it is likely we'll be back up to 500GB in a couple of years anyway. Now that we've moved to a new server, our backend hard disk is 3TB, so has plenty of storage capacity for several years to come.

But I've only scratched the surface of why I think Data::FlexSerializer is so good. Aside from its ability to compress and uncompress, as well as encode and decode, at speed, it is ability to switch between formats is what makes it such a versatile tool to have around. Aside from Storable, JSON and Sereal, you can also create your own serialisation interface, using the add_format method. Below is an example, from the module's own documentation, which implements Data::Dumper as a serialsation format:

        data_dumper => {
            serialize   => sub { shift; goto \&Data::Dumper::Dumper },
            deserialize => sub { shift; my $VAR1; eval "$_[0]" },
            detect      => sub { $_[1] =~ /\$[\w]+\s*=/ },
    my $flex_to_dd = Data::FlexSerializer->new(
      detect_data_dumper => 1,
      output_format => 'data_dumper',

It's unlikely CPAN Testers will move from JSON to Sereal (or any other format), but if we did, Data::FlexSerializer would be only tool I would need to look to. My thanks to for releasing the code, and thanks to the authors; Steffen Mueller, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Burak Gürsoy, Elizabeth Matthijsen, Caio Romão Costa Nascimento and Jonas Galhordas Duarte Alves, for creating the code behind the module in the first place.

File Under: database / modules / opensource / perl

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